Medical Student Lecture Handouts

 Goals and Objectives:

The goal of this elective is to expose medical students entering any discipline to the fundamentals of ophthalmology including:

  • The basic eye examination,
  • Recognition of common ophthalmic conditions
  • An understanding of the ophthalmic manifestations of selected systemic diseases
  • When to manage and when to refer patients with ophthalmic problems

Upon completion of the elective, the student should be able to:

  1. Perform a basic eye exam including obtaining a complete history, visual acuity, testing pupillary function including an understanding of the afferent pupillary defect, external examination, eye movements (using Hirshberg reflex) and confrontation visual fields.
  2. Know when a dilated fundus exam is indicated and practice fundus exam using the direct ophthalmoscope.
  3. Become familiar with common eye conditions that any primary care physician is likely to encounter including the indications for urgent or elective referral.
  4. Demonstrate their knowledge in the following areas:
    1. Acute and chronic vision loss
    2. The Red eye
    3. Ocular and orbital injuries
    4. Amblyopia and strabismus
    5. Neuro-ophthalmology
    6. Ocular manifestations of systemic diseases
    7. Ocular pharmacotherapy and ocular side effects of systemic medications
  5. Complete all assigned online lectures and reading assignments (below).

Required materials: Harper RA. Basic Ophthalmology, 9th Ed. American Academy of Ophthalmology 2010. Copies are available to borrow at the Northport VA upon the  start of the elective course. 



Basic Eye Exam   | handout | video A | video B | reprint |
Red Eye | handout | video |
Ophthalmic Trauma | handout | video | reprint |
Amblyopia Strabismus | handout | video A | video B |
Systemic Diseases | handout | video part A | video part B |
Slow Vision Loss | handout | video |
Sudden Vision Loss | handout | video |
Glaucoma | handout
 Surgical Videos | cataract a | cataract b | Glaucoma filter | Glaucoma valve |

Hieroglyphics of the Eye Exam (P Sibony)
Referral Guidelines for the Primary Care Physician (P Sibony, F ElBaba)
Basic Eye Exam

* Note. if the video does not open after allowing for adobe player try viewing on a different browser, i.e. chrome or firefox


Other Useful Clinical Resources for Medical Students:

Vislisel J. Iowa Guide to the Ophthalmology Match 2013-2014: [excellent, comprehensive summary of the application process]

Root, Timothy MD  Ophthobook, ISBN-13; 978-1448638826


Basic Eye Anatomy and Exam:

 The Slit Lamp exam:

 Acute Vision Loss and the Red Eye: (May duplicate slightly what is already on SB Website)

 Ocular and Orbital Injuries:

 Surgical Videos (From EyeRounds.Org):  Use especially if scheduled to see a procedure in the OR - Cornea Transplant - Cataract surgery - Glaucoma tube shunt – Intravitreal injection (done VERY often in the clinic)  - Strabismus surgery - Blepharoplasty

 Practical “Print” material: – good starting point for clinical exam – more detail comp to Tim Root with high yield info and modules on OCT

 Quiz Material: - Anatomy, systemic disease, trauma, medications


Are you interested in pursuing a residency in Ophthalmology ? Read this ......