Goals and Objectives:
The goal of this elective is to expose medical students entering any discipline to the fundamentals of ophthalmology including:
- The basic eye examination,
- Recognition of common ophthalmic conditions
- An understanding of the ophthalmic manifestations of selected systemic diseases
- When to manage and when to refer patients with ophthalmic problems
Upon completion of the elective, the student should be able to:
- Perform a basic eye exam including obtaining a complete history, visual acuity, testing pupillary function including an understanding of the afferent pupillary defect, external examination, eye movements (using Hirshberg reflex) and confrontation visual fields.
- Know when a dilated fundus exam is indicated and practice fundus exam using the direct ophthalmoscope.
- Become familiar with common eye conditions that any primary care physician is likely to encounter including the indications for urgent or elective referral.
- Demonstrate their knowledge in the following areas:
- Acute and chronic vision loss
- The Red eye
- Ocular and orbital injuries
- Amblyopia and strabismus
- Ocular manifestations of systemic diseases
- Ocular pharmacotherapy and ocular side effects of systemic medications
- Complete all assigned online lectures and reading assignments (below).
Bradford CA. Basic Ophthalmology. American Academy of Ophthalmology 2004 ; Chapters 1-9 A copy is on reserve at the Northport VA medical library and can be borrowed for the elective.
LECTURE VIDEOS AND HANDOUTS *
Basic Eye Exam | handout | video A | video B | reprint | Red Eye | handout | video | summary table | Ophthalmic Trauma | handout | video | reprint | Amblyopia Strabismus | handout | video A | video B | Systemic Diseases | handout | video part A | video part B | Slow Vision Loss | handout | video | Sudden Vision Loss | handout | video | Surgical Videos | cataract a | cataract b | Glaucoma filter | Glaucoma valve |
Hieroglyphics of the Eye Exam (P Sibony)
Referral Guidelines for the Primary Care Physician (P Sibony, F ElBaba)
Basic Eye Exam
* Note. Lecture videos best viewed on Internet Explorer Browser.
Are you interested in pursuing a residency in Ophthalmology ? Read this ......
- Grubbs et al. Advising students interested in Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2016. 123:1406
- Root, Timothy MD Ophthobook, ISBN-13; 978-1448638826
- Lessell S. Advising Medical Students about Ophthalmology Electives and Residencies. J Acad Ophthalmol 2009: vol 2(1), p 19-22.
- Nallasamy, S. Ophthalmology Resident Selection. Ophthalmology 2010 Aug: 117(5); 1041-7
- Greene, M . Selection Criteria for Residency: results of a National Program Directors Survey. Academic Medicine 84:362. 2009>
- Yousuf S, Jones L. Ophthalmology Residency Match Outcomes 2011. Ophthalmology 2012. 119:642
- Vislisel J. Iowa Guide to the Ophthalmology Match 2013-2014: [excellent, comprehensive summary of the application process]
- San Francisco Residency Matching Services
- ACGME Ophthalmology