Goals and Objectives:
The goal of this elective is to expose medical students entering any discipline to the fundamentals of ophthalmology including:
- The basic eye examination,
- Recognition of common ophthalmic conditions
- An understanding of the ophthalmic manifestations of selected systemic diseases
- When to manage and when to refer patients with ophthalmic problems
Upon completion of the elective, the student should be able to:
- Perform a basic eye exam including obtaining a complete history, visual acuity, testing pupillary function including an understanding of the afferent pupillary defect, external examination, eye movements (using Hirshberg reflex) and confrontation visual fields.
- Know when a dilated fundus exam is indicated and practice fundus exam using the direct ophthalmoscope.
- Become familiar with common eye conditions that any primary care physician is likely to encounter including the indications for urgent or elective referral.
- Demonstrate their knowledge in the following areas:
- Acute and chronic vision loss
- The Red eye
- Ocular and orbital injuries
- Amblyopia and strabismus
- Ocular manifestations of systemic diseases
- Ocular pharmacotherapy and ocular side effects of systemic medications
- Complete all assigned online lectures and reading assignments (below).
Bradford CA. Basic Ophthalmology. American Academy of Ophthalmology 2004 ; Chapters 1-9 A copy is on reserve at the Northport VA medical library and can be borrowed for the elective.
LECTURE VIDEOS AND HANDOUTS *
Basic Eye Exam | handout | video A | video B | reprint | Red Eye | handout | video | summary table | Ophthalmic Trauma | handout | video | reprint | Amblyopia Strabismus | handout | video A | video B | Systemic Diseases | handout | video part A | video part B | Slow Vision Loss | handout | video | Sudden Vision Loss | handout | video | Surgical Videos | cataract a | cataract b | Glaucoma filter | Glaucoma valve |
Hieroglyphics of the Eye Exam (P Sibony)
Referral Guidelines for the Primary Care Physician (P Sibony, F ElBaba)
Basic Eye Exam
* Note. if the video does not open after allowing for adobe player try viewing on a different browser, i.e. chrome or firefox
Other Useful Clinical Resources for Medical Students:
Vislisel J. Iowa Guide to the Ophthalmology Match 2013-2014: [excellent, comprehensive summary of the application process]
Root, Timothy MD Ophthobook, ISBN-13; 978-1448638826
Basic Eye Anatomy and Exam:
The Slit Lamp exam:
Acute Vision Loss and the Red Eye: (May duplicate slightly what is already on SB Website)
Ocular and Orbital Injuries:
Surgical Videos (From EyeRounds.Org): Use especially if scheduled to see a procedure in the OR
http://www.eyerounds.org/video/Cornea/PKP.htm - Cornea Transplant
http://www.eyerounds.org/atlas-video/Phaco-first-case.htm - Cataract surgery
http://www.eyerounds.org/atlas-video/ahmed-valve-glaucoma-surgery.htm - Glaucoma tube shunt
http://www.eyerounds.org/tutorials/intravitreal-injection/index.htm#video1 – Intravitreal injection (done VERY often in the clinic)
http://www.eyerounds.org/atlas-video/blepharoplasty-upper.htm - Blepharoplasty
Practical “Print” material:
Timroot.com – good starting point for clinical exam
Eyeguru.com – more detail comp to Tim Root with high yield info and modules on OCT
http://kellogg.umich.edu/theeyeshaveit/quiz/Side_Effects_of_Medication_Quiz/0.html - Anatomy, systemic disease, trauma, medications
Are you interested in pursuing a residency in Ophthalmology ? Read this ......
- Grubbs et al. Advising students interested in Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2016. 123:1406
- Lessell S. Advising Medical Students about Ophthalmology Electives and Residencies. J Acad Ophthalmol 2009: vol 2(1), p 19-22.
- Nallasamy, S. Ophthalmology Resident Selection. Ophthalmology 2010 Aug: 117(5); 1041-7
- Greene, M . Selection Criteria for Residency: results of a National Program Directors Survey. Academic Medicine 84:362. 2009>
- Yousuf S, Jones L. Ophthalmology Residency Match Outcomes 2011. Ophthalmology 2012. 119:642
- San Francisco Residency Matching Services
- ACGME Ophthalmology