Goals and Objectives:
The goal of this elective is to expose medical students entering any discipline to the fundamentals of ophthalmology including:
- The basic eye examination,
- Recognition of common ophthalmic conditions
- An understanding of the ophthalmic manifestations of selected systemic diseases
- When to manage and when to refer patients with ophthalmic problems
Upon completion of the elective, the student should be able to:
- Perform a basic eye exam including obtaining a complete history, visual acuity, testing pupillary function including an understanding of the afferent pupillary defect, external examination, eye movements (using Hirshberg reflex) and confrontation visual fields.
- Know when a dilated fundus exam is indicated and practice fundus exam using the direct ophthalmoscope.
- Become familiar with common eye conditions that any primary care physician is likely to encounter including the indications for urgent or elective referral.
- Demonstrate their knowledge in the following areas:
- Acute and chronic vision loss
- The Red eye
- Ocular and orbital injuries
- Amblyopia and strabismus
- Ocular manifestations of systemic diseases
- Ocular pharmacotherapy and ocular side effects of systemic medications
- Complete all assigned online lectures and reading assignments (below).
Required materials: Harper RA. Basic Ophthalmology, 9th Ed. American Academy of Ophthalmology 2010. Copies are available to borrow at the Northport VA upon the start of the elective course.
LECTURE VIDEOS AND HANDOUTS *
Basic Eye Exam | handout | video A | video B | reprint | Red Eye | handout | video | summary table | Ophthalmic Trauma | handout | video | reprint | Amblyopia Strabismus | handout | video A | video B | Systemic Diseases | handout | video part A | video part B | Slow Vision Loss | handout | video | Sudden Vision Loss | handout | video | Glaucoma | handout Surgical Videos | cataract a | cataract b | Glaucoma filter | Glaucoma valve |
Hieroglyphics of the Eye Exam (P Sibony)
Referral Guidelines for the Primary Care Physician (P Sibony, F ElBaba)
Basic Eye Exam
* Note. if the video does not open after allowing for adobe player try viewing on a different browser, i.e. chrome or firefox
Other Useful Clinical Resources for Medical Students:
Vislisel J. Iowa Guide to the Ophthalmology Match 2013-2014: [excellent, comprehensive summary of the application process]
Root, Timothy MD Ophthobook, ISBN-13; 978-1448638826
Basic Eye Anatomy and Exam:
The Slit Lamp exam:
Acute Vision Loss and the Red Eye: (May duplicate slightly what is already on SB Website)
Ocular and Orbital Injuries:
Surgical Videos (From EyeRounds.Org): Use especially if scheduled to see a procedure in the OR
http://www.eyerounds.org/video/Cornea/PKP.htm - Cornea Transplant
http://www.eyerounds.org/atlas-video/Phaco-first-case.htm - Cataract surgery
http://www.eyerounds.org/atlas-video/ahmed-valve-glaucoma-surgery.htm - Glaucoma tube shunt
http://www.eyerounds.org/tutorials/intravitreal-injection/index.htm#video1 – Intravitreal injection (done VERY often in the clinic)
http://www.eyerounds.org/atlas-video/blepharoplasty-upper.htm - Blepharoplasty
Practical “Print” material:
Timroot.com – good starting point for clinical exam
Eyeguru.com – more detail comp to Tim Root with high yield info and modules on OCT
http://kellogg.umich.edu/theeyeshaveit/quiz/Side_Effects_of_Medication_Quiz/0.html - Anatomy, systemic disease, trauma, medications
Are you interested in pursuing a residency in Ophthalmology ? Read this ......
- Grubbs et al. Advising students interested in Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2016. 123:1406
- Lessell S. Advising Medical Students about Ophthalmology Electives and Residencies. J Acad Ophthalmol 2009: vol 2(1), p 19-22.
- Nallasamy, S. Ophthalmology Resident Selection. Ophthalmology 2010 Aug: 117(5); 1041-7
- Greene, M . Selection Criteria for Residency: results of a National Program Directors Survey. Academic Medicine 84:362. 2009>
- Yousuf S, Jones L. Ophthalmology Residency Match Outcomes 2011. Ophthalmology 2012. 119:642
- San Francisco Residency Matching Services
- ACGME Ophthalmology