A maternal-fetal medicine specialist is an obstetrician/gynecologist who has completed 2-3 years of additional formal education and clinical experience within an American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ABOG) approved Maternal-Fetal Medicine Fellowship Program and is eligible for or certified by ABOG as having a special competence in: 1) the diagnosis and treatment of women with complications of pregnancy; 2) pre-existing medical conditions which may be impacted by pregnancy; and 3) medical conditions which impact the pregnancy itself. Maternal-fetal medicine specialists have the specific training and experience needed to perform complex diagnostic and therapeutic procedures during pregnancy that can involve the fetus and/or mother - e.g. targeted ultrasound, fetal intravascular transfusions. A maternal-fetal medicine specialist requires advanced knowledge of the obstetrical, medical, genetic, and surgical complications of pregnancy and their effects on both the mother and fetus.